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EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS

AMONG

COLORED PEOPLE.

BY

Q. K. RICHINOS,

Originator of Illustrated Lectures on Race Progress,

TENTH EDITION.

PHILADELPHIA:

GEO. S. FERGUSON CO., IQ03.

Copyrighted, 1902, by G. F. RiCHiNGS.

INTRODUCTION.

It is a pleasant thing to introduce an individual or a friend to another individual or a friend ; but to in- troduce a book is more important than an individual introduction. Books are good and they are bad, just in proportion as their contents tend to producing right or wrong action of life; or convey truth or error. When the mission of a book is to present facts versus theory about an individual or a race, it ought to be encouraged by all who believe in fair play.

The author of this book has for a number of years been collecting facts in relation to the Progress of the Race since Emancipation. He has traveled East and West, North and South, with his eyes and ears open. For several years he has thrown these facts on the canvas to be seen and read in the New and Old World. He now proposes to present them to a larger and greater audience. It was impossible for all to attend his entertainments, but now he proposes to send the entertainments to the audience.

The pages of this book will take the place of the canvas ; the dim light of the lantern will be super- seded by the clear light of reason, and the race that

has been so long misrepresented will appear in a new

(Ui)

Introduction.

\ as the representative characters of this book \ % tEiorough examination as to tlieir capability l^adf^ulturc, self-improvement, self-support and ' fldMdence.

The Home, the Store, the Schotd and ChuithyHOiA' ]

the Factory arc the infallible signs of civilization ; the people who support these exhibit the true signs of enlightenment.

In this volume you will have an opportunity of teaming how the leading schools were started by the

Introduction. v

friends of the race. You will learn how men and women left their homes of ease and comfort and went among the new-born Freedmen, and assisted in re- constructing the individual and home life. You will also learn the names of noble men and women who have founded, supported and endowed institutions for the training of the head, hand and heart of the coming generation.

An account will be given of the schools founded, manned and supported by the race itself; and, for the first time, the world will be enlightened as to what the race is doing for its own education ; illustrations of buildings, presidents, professors and students will gladden your eyes.

Short sketches of men and women who have shown skill in the professions, and achieved success in busi- ness, will be presented, calculated to give inspiration to the youth of the future.

Having witnessed the instructive exhibitions of the author of this volume, and heard with pleasure his instructive Lectures, I take great pleasure in intro- ducing to the present and future generations ** Evi- dences. OF Progress Among Colored People." For I know no man better qualified by his knowledge of the history of the race and by his personal exami- nation and careful study of our problem, also his intimate acquaintance with individuals about whom he writes, than Mr. G. F. Richings.

I am yours for God and the Race,

Benjamin W. Arnett.

Tawawa Chimney Corner,

WiLBERFORCE, OHIO, March 20, 1896.

PREFACE.

There seems to be a general impression and a growing sentiment in this country that the colored people, as a class, have not, and are not, making any progress ; or, that they have not improved the educa- tional opportunities offered them by the philanthropic white people who have proven themselves friendly to the cause of Negro education. This feeling has de- veloped from two causes : First, we have a large and wealthy class of white people who go South every year during the cold season for either their health or pleasure, and while in the South, they see a great many colored people on the streets of Southern cities who appear to have ho employment. In many cases this may be true; sometimes because they do not want to work ; but in the majority of cases the true cause of so much idleness among the colored people in the South lies in the fact that they are not able to get work, no matter how much they may seek it. Let this be as it may, the presence of these people on the streets, dressed as the unemployed usually dress in the South, gives these Northern white people an unfavorable impression of the colored brother and an erroneous idea of the real condition of these people. Hence they return to their Northern homes with a

(vU)

rill Preface,

very pessimistic story to tell regarding the Southern colored people.

The second reason for this erroneous impression regarding the condition of the colored people of the South, lies in the fact that white people never look in the right direction for evidences of race progress, but are continually drawing their comparisons from the lowest types and judging the whole race by a few who occupy only the lowest levels in common society. For an illustration : A country girl from the South, who has never spent six days of her life in a school- room, is employed in a Northern family to do menial work. The mistress of the household finds her ignorant and sometimes absolutely stupid, and instead of classing this girl where she belongs, as all races are divided into classes, she immediately arrives at the conclusion that because the girl hails from the South, she must be a fair specimen and a true representative of all the colored people in that section. And she further concludes that all this talk about the wonder- ful progress made by the Negro since the war is mere talk, having no foundation in fact, and that this talk is kept up in order that the people may be mis- led into subscribing their money for educational work.

I have talked with a great many white people on this subject, and they have, in almost every instance, expressed about the same sentiment I have given above. One lady, in Boston, Mass., said to me : *' But colored people are so ignorant." I asked her with whom she was acquainted among colored people.

Preface, ix

" Why/* said she, " we have employed colored help for years, and one colored woman has washed for our family ever since I was a child." It will be seen that her conclusions were drawn from a very low level, and that her contact with colored people had always been limited to the poorer, working classes. Indeed, so general is the impression among white people that no real progress has been made by the ex-slaves, that at least seven out of every ten seem to think of the colored people as a worthless, inflexible element, in- capable of mental, moral and other developments essential to a high state of civilization.

I think that I can safely say that the only white people who are willing to admit that there is a better class of colored people, are those who have either taught in their institutions, or have intimate friends engaged in that kind of work. Friends who are anxious to help the race, find that these wrong im- pressions have been so thoroughly established, that the educational work is very much hampered and interfered with from year to year ; and the success of Southern schools, dependent on Northern philan- thropy, has been very much hindered on acr ount of the gloomy aspect given by Northern people visiting Southern cities. The contributions from the North to these schools, have been very meagre and, of course, the higher possibilities of negro education have not been reached. Enemies of the race, and those laboring under false impressions, are led to be- lieve that the money invested in Southern Educa- tional Institutions has been simply thrown away.

X Preface.

We cannot hope for a change for the better as long as colored people are only known as coachmen, waiters, cooks, and washerwomen.

I have called your attention to a very gloomy as- pect of the Southern situation. But while the aspect is a gloomy one, it represents the true attitude of the American people, with a few exceptions. I have put forth this effort to set my friends right on this im- portant question, and I sincerely believe that the time is not far distant when the white people will see to it that these Southern Institutions are guaranteed more liberal support and better encouragement. I see the colored people in a much brighter light and in a more hopeful condition than the men of my race who visit the South for the purpose of making super- ficial observations. And because I have found so many interesting ** Evidences of Progress Among Col- ored People," I offer this as my apology for writing this book. The facts contained in this work have been gathered during sixteen years of actual labor and contact with the colored people in all parts of the United States. I have had to go deeper into the question, to secure my information, than merely to visit street-corners and hold casual conversation with the unfortunate and the unemployed, North or South.

When those who read this book take into con- sideration the fact that many of the characters herein mentioned started some thirty years ago without a dollar, without a home, and without education, except here and there a few who had, in some mys-

Preface. xi

terious way, learned to read and write, they will, I am sure, be willing to admit that some progress has been made by the people in whose interest this book is published. I wish to make prominent four phases of the race question, namely: (i) The schools which have been built for colored people and managed by whites; (2) The schools managed by colored people;

(3) The church work carried on among them, and

(4) The business and professional development as the result of education.

I am well aware that, had it not been for the philan- thropists who gave their money so freely at the close of the Civil War for the education of the freedmen, and the Christian and unselfish missionaries who went South to teach the ex-slaves, I would not have been able to present so many interesting and, in many cases, startling ** Evidences of Progress Among Col^ ored People." I want to mention most of the schools started by white friends. But I shall deal more at length and in greater detail with the school work carried on by the colored people themselves. There are many who are asking if the colored people are doing anything for themselves in an educational way. This question will be clearly answered in this book. I do not claim that colored people support entirely all of the schools managed by them, nor have the white people a right to expect that they should be able to do so, in so short a time. For my part, I shall feel that they will have accomplished a great deal if, in the next hundred years, they will have reached that point where they can support their own

xii Preface.

schools and meet all the financial obligations involved. I have no doubt but that many who shall read this book will be, as I was, greatly surprised, yes, astonished; for some of the sketches read like romances more than the ordinary things of life.

I shall mention the names of one or more of the many men and women I have found engaged in all the pursuits and walks of life. I present in many cases the portraits of characters whose sketches ap- pear, in order that the white people may make a study of their faces. Some, in fact many, of them are very dark. I mention this because I have been led to be- lieve that it is the general opinion among Americans that quite a percentage of white blood runs through the veins of colored people who have proven their susceptibility to higher education. I believe, and I am confident, that the contents of this book will help me to demonstrate that the color of the skin, the tex- ture of the hair, and the formation of the head, have nothing whatever to do with the development and expansion of the mind. I only hope that the white friends may be made to feel that the colored people are entitled to more consideration and ought to be given a better opportunity to fill the places for which they are being fitted, in the commercial and business life of this country.

Among the colored readers I hope to stimulate a greater interest in these institutions and thereby help to bring the race up to a higher educational and social level. In order that my book might not be too large, I had to omit a great many sketches of woithy per-

Preface. xiii

sons and institutions ; but I tried to mention one or more persons engaged in the different branches of business and professions. So any who are omitted will please attribute it to a want of space and not a neglect or oversight on my part.

I shall feel that I have accomplished a good work 'f I have set before my readers food for earnest thought on the questions involved.

G. F. RiCHINGS.

CONTENTS.

Introduction pH

Preface ' . , , «ni

CHAPTER I.

BAPTIST SCHOOLS MANAGED BY WHITE PEOPLE . . . I7

CHAPTER n.

BAPTIST SCHOOLS MANAGED BY COLORED PEOPLE . . .41

CHAPTER HI.

CONGREGATIONAL SCHOOLS 7I

CHAPTER IV.

EPISCOPAL SCHOOLS 88

CHAPTERS V. AND VI.

METHODIST EPISCOPAL SCHOOLS . . . . . .97

CHAPTER VII.

A. M. E. SCHOOLS II7

CHAPTER VIII.

A. M. E. ZION SCHOOL I43

CHAPTER IX.

PRESBYTERIAN SCHOOLS MANAGED BY WHITE PEOPLE . - 154

CHAPTER X.

PRESBYTERIAN SCHOOI^ MANAGED BY COLORED PEOPLE . 158

CHAPTER XI.

TUSKEGEE AND NORMAL, BOTH IN ALABAMA .... 189

CHAPTER XII.

ECKSTEIN NORTON UNIVERSITY, GLOUCESTER, AND OTHER

SCHOOLS 218

(xiv)

Contents. xv

CHAPTER XIII.

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY AND 6ERRA COLLEGE 248

CHAPTER XIV. institute for colored youth, camp nelson, and curry

School 254

CHAPTER XV.

NASHVILLE, TENN 264

CHAPTER XVI.

ATLANTA, GA., AND INDIANAPOLIS, IND 273

CHAPTER XVII.

FINE PENMEN 278

CHAPTER XVIII.

COLORED LAWYERS 284

CHAPTER XIX.

J. H. LEWIS AND OTHER BUSINESS MEN 297

CHAPTER XX.

WALTER P. HALL AND OTHER SUCCESSFUL MERCHANTS . . 316

CHAPTER XXI.

BANKS, INSURANCE COMPANIES, ETC 334

CHAPTER XXII.

PATENTS AND OTHER BUSINESS INTERESTS .... 342

CHAPTER XXIII.

COLORED EDITORS AND JOURNALISTS 349

CHAPTER XXIV.

CHURCHES 375

CHAPTER XXV.

HOSPITALS AND HOMES 392

CHAPTER J^XVI.

PROMINENT COLORED WOMEN 4II

CHAPTER XXVn.

DR. JOHN R. FRANCIS AND HIS PRIVATE SANATORIUM . . 429

CHAPTER XXVIII.

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN SCHOOLS, BOYDTON INSTITUTE, Al^Ii

CHRISTIANSBURG INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE. . . % . ^7^

xvi Contents,

CHAPTER XXIX,

HAMPTON INSTITUTE, HAMPTON. VA 445

CHAPTER XXX.

STATE SCHOOLS AND CALHOUN SETTLEMENT . 46I

CHAPTER XXXI.

C. M. E. SCHOOLS 47*

CHAPTER XXXII.

CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 47^

CHAPTER XXXHI.

COLFMAN MANUFACTURING COMPANY 4^1

CHAPTER XXXIV.

RICHMOND, VA 486

CHAPTER XXXV.

FfF.RP, AND THERE 498

CHAPTER XXXVI.

*■ A ; •.M, HAPTl-r PUBLISHING KmARD . . . . 564

CHAPTER XXXVII.

'■■r..- ■■■ ■, OMilF.RS 569

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

57*

"■-■' : ■'■:y\:i- >y pkople 574

EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS AMONG

COLORED PEOPLE.

CHAPTER I.

BAPTIST SCHOOLS MANAGED BY WHITE PEOPLE.

In 1865 four million colored people suddenly emerged from bondage, poor, ignorant, and in many cases with very crude notions of religion or morality. Not one-third of those who had arrived to years of understanding at that time can be found among the eight millions of colored population to-day. And consequently, the younger element of this race know little or nothing about the great con- flict, the culmination of which brought to their fathers and mothers that boon of all human aspiration liberty. " With the mutations of time in Egypt, a king arose who knew not Joseph. In these changes here, a new generation comes on, to whom occur- rences of the past are but dim and sometimes distorted traditions."

To my mind, the last generation has been charac- terized by greater conflicts and has been freighted with more thrilling events than any generation through which the history of this country has brought a (17)

1 8 Evidences of Progress

us. Through ignorance, and sometimes indifference, we are in serious danger of depreciating the wonder- ful agencies that have been such potent factors in the growth and development of a people. It is, therefore, important that some close observer of events con- stantly keep before the people, in whose interest these factors have been set in operation, full accounts of all the developments, that the young may be inspired to noble aims and lofty endeavors.

While such a task is not an easy one, I feel it my duty to attempt its performance. All the data and every observation set forth in these chapters have been the result of personal investigation among the colored people. I shall give in this chapter a brief history of the schools conducted by white people of the Baptist denomination for the education of colored people. In this work the American Baptist Home Mission Society has expended since 1862 ;^3,ooo,ooo. The value of school property acquired by the so- ciety amounts to ;g900,ooo.

When before this society " came the vision of emancipated millions, desperately needy, in dire dis- tress and full of forebodings, stretching forth their unshackled, but empty, unskilled and helpless hands for friendly aid and guidance," this society at once took them in and offered them shelter and comfort. The society has accomplished wonders for the colored people, and I am sure that the colored people appre- ciate all that it has done for them.

I shall begin my history of Baptist schools with Spelman Seminary.

Among Colored People. 19

SPELMAN SEMINARY.

The history of Spelman Seminary reads like a romance. Beginning in 1 881, in the gloomy base- ment of the Friendship Baptist Church, Atlanta, Ga., a church owned by the colored people, without any of the accessories needed for successful school work, with but two teachers. Miss S. B. Packard and Miss Harriet E. Giles, and with less than a dozen pupils, it has grown to be the largest and best equipped school for the training of colored girls in the United States.

The institution has a magnificent location, and all of the buildings are specially suited to its needs. Spelman has a large and able faculty of earnest, de- voted teachers, an attendance of pupils numbered by the hundreds, a constituency of friends and patrons rapidly extending in numbers and interest, and has made for itself a large place in the educational forces of the South, and established a reputation of a very high order.

The question of the education of the colored peo- ple as a preparation for citizenship, just after the war, demanded careful thought and prompt treatment, and among the noble women who ventured into the South, fully equipped to do the service they felt was needed, were Miss S. B. Packard and Miss H. E. Giles. The Southern white people could not reason- ably be expected to throw to the winds all their cherished traditions and preconceptions simply be- cause they had acknowledged defeat at the hands of the Northern people. They could not even be ex-

20 Evidences of I¥ogress

peeled to at once admit their former slaves into po- lilical fellowship, recognizing them as equals in all the rights of citizenship ; nor could they be expected to provide schools for the education of these people. Out of a consideration of these facts, Northern people, moved by noble and unselfish impulses, made their way to the South and established these great institu- tions for the education of colored people.

Both Miss Packard and Miss Giles had made for themselves a reputation before moving from their homes in New England to Atlanta. They were identified with the Woman's Baptist Home Mission Society and had indicated their zeal for the promo- tion of the Society's interest in the most practical manner. The work done at Spelman is a practical Christian work, and the young ladies who graduate from that institution are the very best specimens of cultured and refined womanhood. This school is modeled after those of like grade established for white people. This should be the case with all Southern schools. There are required the same qualifications in the teachers, the same text-books, the same course of study, the same kinds of disci- pline that are found in similar institutions. There seems to be no point in the equipment or gener.il management of these institutions where they can diverge safely from those which the history of educa- tion has shown to be most desirable and best adapted to their purpo.se. The grounds, buildings, furniture, libraries, text-books, apparatus, endowments of a Ne- gro school in Georgia, should not differ in any re-

jlmang Colored People. 21

spect from the equipment of a similar institution for white pupils in Massachusetts.

Spelman Seminary is a power for good, and since I the death of Miss S. B. Packard is managed by Miss H. E. Giles, principal, and Miss L. H. Upton, asso- ciate principal.

ROGER WILLIAMS UNIVERSITY.

Roger Williams University was founded in 1863 I by Rev. D. W. Phillips, D. D., who was for many years its president. Its present president is the Rev, P. B. Guernse)', A. M. The total enrolment for 1900 was 322 122 young men and 100 young women. The school is beautifully situated in the suburbs of the city of Nashville, in the State of Tennessee.

Nashville has become the chief centre of education n the South, both for the white and colored people. No other city south of the Oiiio offers so many ad- vantages as the seat of an institution for higher learn- ing. The University grounds lie close to the city I limits, on the Hillshoro' turnpike. Just beyond the I Vanderbilt University. The location is high and airy, and commands an unsurpassed prospect of the I city and surrounding country.

It is a school for both sexes. It has Collegiate, Biblical and Theological, Academic, Normal, Eng- I lish. Musical and Industrial Departments.

The Collegiate Department aims at a thorough [ liberal education which gives the student the posse.s- 1 of his faculties tieveloped and trained, a general I acquaintance with the broad principles of all human f knowledge, and a preparation for a special study of

22 Evidences of Progress

any of the learned professions. This department has two courses : the classical, leading to the degree of B. A., and the scientific, leading to the degree of B. S.

The Biblical and Theological Department has a general and special aim. Its general aim is to make the Bible a living book to each student. Every pupil in the school receives during his entire course a daily lesson in the Bible. Its special aim is to fur- nish better preachers of the Gospel and better pas- tors of the churches. Every year a " ministers* class " is conducted for ten weeks, beginning with the first day of January. Members of the class have three recitations daily. They may also attend such other classes as they can with profit to themselves.

The Academic Department prepares for college. It consists of a three years' course in classic and mathematic studies that link the English Department to the college work.

The Normal Department aims to furnish, for the public schools of the land, teachers that will raise the tone of education and make these schools more effi- cient. It consists of a three years course in subjects best adapted for this purpose.

The English Department aims to give the pupil a thorough drill in the elements of common intelligence. Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, Spelling and History are taught by the best of teachers, so that the young people are prepared to take their places as citizens alongside of pupils of the most favored city schools. Parents who live in

24 Eoidiiues cf Progress

rural districts and in country towns, where the public schools are of short duration and scant equipments and feeble teaching, will find here facilities for Eng- lish education that are not surpassed in the South.

Tlie Musical Department aims to give a musical education, both vocal and instrumental, that will make the young people efficient workers in church and Sabbath school and elevating and refining mem- bers of the home and social circles.

The Industrial Department does not aim to fit students for the various mechanical trades, but it does aim to give them instruction and experience, that will train their eyes and hands and make them handy in the use of tools.

The school has a total teaching force of sixteen persons. Six of these are graduates of the best Northern Universities. Others are teachers of ex- cellent education and wide experience.

The young ladies are under the close and affec- tionate watchcare of a New England lady, whose treatment of them is noted for its conscientiousness, its piety and its niotherliness.

A number of the male teachers live in the build- ing with the young men and thus become to them constant advisers, counsellors and friends.

The religious influences of the school are pure, constant and strong.

The University is grandly located for accessi- bility, healthfulness, and beauty. It is near enough to the city of Nashville to give it all the advantages of city life. Yet it is so far removed from the

Among Colored People, 25

crowded city with its slums, saloons and other evils, that it is virtually in the country.

The property of the school is valued at ;^8o,000. It has a small endowment fund of less than $\fyoo. Several Indian youths from the Indian Territory have been students in this institution. The graduates are widely scattered throughout the South, occupy- ing positions of influence and usefulness.

VIRGINIA UNION UNIVERSITY.

Virginia Union University has been formed out of two very excellent schools, where a great work has been done for the education and advancement of the colored people, namely, Wayland College, which was located at Washington, D. C, and Richmond Theological Seminary, at Richmond, Va. Both of these schools have a very interesting history. Way- land Seminary, as it was called, was founded at Washington, D. C, in 1865. Rev. G. M. P. King was president of it for twenty-seven years. The work began in 1865, was vigorously followed up by the purchase of property on ** I *' street at a cost of ;^l,500 from monies contributed by women of the North. The school was named in honor of President Francis Wayland, of Brown University. In 1871 a new site, 150 feet square, on Meridian Hill, in the northern part of the city, was purchased at a cost of i^3»375' The erection of a new building was begun in 1873. It was a fine four-story building, with basement and accommodations for seventy-five stu- dents, with recitation rooms and rooms for the faculty.

26 Evidences of Progress

It cost about ;g20,ooo. The walls, from the founda- tion to the crowning, were constructed by colored bricklayers under the supervision of a master work- man, an ex-slave from Virginia, who purchased his freedom before the war. Wayland Seminary has turned out some very able men, among them Rev. Harvey Johnson, D. D., of Baltimore, Md., who is one of the most noted colored preachers in the country. He has held charge of one of the largest Colored Baptist churches in the United States for nearly thirty years.

The Richmond Theological Seminary, at Rich- mond, Va., has a very remarkable history. It was first commenced in 1868, and started its work in Lumpkin's Slave Jail, and was first known as Colver Institute. In I876 it was incorporated as the Rich- mond Institute. Subsequently the trustees and offi- cers of the American Baptist Home Missionary Soci- ety decided to make it a school for ministers only, and in 1886 the name was changed to the Richmond Theological Seminary. Rev. Charles Corey, A. M., D. D., was elected president in 1868, and remained in charge until 1899. when the school went into the Union University. In speaking of the work, Rev. Corey said : " Of students there have been in at- tendance nearly 1,100; total preparing for the min- istry, 540; graduates with diplomas from Richmond Institute, 73 ; total graduates with degree of B. D. fi-om Richmond Theological Seminary, 27. Some of these graduates are now in charge of institutions of learning, others are professors in seminaries

Among Colored People. 2J

and universities. Six entered the foreign mission field. The former students of the Richmond Theo- logical Seminary are to be found from Canada to Texas, and in the lands far beyond the sea." The school has had among its teachers such men as Prof J. E. Jones, D. D., and Prof. D. N. Vassar, D. D. Both of these men are well educated and represent a high type of true manhood, and they have done much to advance the race they are identi- fied with. Now Wayland College and Seminary and Richmond Theological Seminary are united under one board of trustees. They have at present the Theological Department, the College Department, the Academic Department and the Preparatory De- partment. An industrial plant will, it is hoped, be built. They already teach the students in a practical way the art of printing and of managing the steam and electrical plant. This last gives them quite a knowledge of engineering. The new buildings num- ber eight a fine library building, including a chapel and library, a lecture hall, a dining hall, a dormitory, a power plant, two residences and a stable. They are constructed of the finest granite, and could not be duplicated for ;g300,ooo. They are situated on a hill about fifty feet above the valley a beautiful lo- cation in the centre of thirty acres. The buildings contain every modern improvement steam heat in all the rooms and halls, electric lighting and a com- plete telephone system for the different buildings and floors, and most approved toilet and bath ar- rangements. It is said to be the finest group of buildings in the whole South.

28 Evidences of Progress

Rev. M. MacVicar, Pli. D., LL. D,, is the presi- dent of the University, George Rice Hovey the dean of Wayland Seminary and CoUejje, Rev. George F. Genuiig, D. D., the dean of the Tlieological -School. The faculty consists of fifteen teachers of unusual abihty, graduates of the best colleges, some of whom have made a name for themselves already. About one-half are white. The courses of study are equal to those of the ordinary Northern schools of similar grade. Virginia Union University will doubtless be the largest Baptist school operated for colored people, and it is located in a part of the country where the colored population is very large, and especially among the Baptists.

ATLANTA BAFflST SEMINARY.

On the corner of Hunter and Elliott streets, in the city of Atlanta, Ga., there stands a smoke -be grimed and somewhat dilapidated brick building bearing. the inscription, "American Baptist Home Mission Society, 1879." Directly in front of the building lies the shunting-yard of the Southern Railroad. The local- ity is one of the nosiest, dustiest and smokiest in the city. It was in this building, among these unfavorable surroundings, that the work of the Atlanta Baptist Seminary was carried on from 1879 till 1890.

In the old building no provision was made for dormitories. The students, most of whom were from the country, were left to find boarding-houses where they could, and besides living in close and crowded homes, where the atmosphere was not specially intel-

Among Colored People. 29

lectual and where the opportunities for quiet study were not great, they were, except for the few hours of school each day, beyond the control and watch- care of the teachers and exposed to the distractions and temptations of the city.

For twelve years prior to the year 1 879 the Seminary had been located at Augusta, Ga., and was known as " The Augusta Institute."

Upon the death of Rev. Joseph T. Robert, LL. D., president for fourteen years, which occurred in 1884, Rev. Samuel Graves, D. D., was appointed. Dr. Graves was quick to see that the first requisite to the vigorous growth of the school was a transplanting. Accord- ingly, he set to work to secure ground and building. As the result of his efforts the present campus was secured and the present building erected, and in the spring of 1890 the Seminary bade farewell to the old building and its noisy neighbors and took up its abode in its new home.

The main building of the institution was erected in 1889 at a cost of ;^27,ooo. In this beautiful build- ing the visitor will find chapel, library, eight class- rooms, president's apartments and rooms for six teachers, dormitory accommodation for about one hundred students, besides kitchen, dining-room and storerooms, laundry, printing office, workshop and boiler-room. Rev. George Sales is president.

SHAW UNIVERSITY.

Shaw University is beautifully located in the city of Raleigh, North Carolina, within ten minutes' walk

30 Evidences of Progress

of the post-office and capitol. The grounds, upon which have been erected five large brick buildings and several of wood, are among the finest in the city^ and include several acres. This institution furnishes by far the largest accommodations of any colored school in North Carolina, and, in the large number of advanced pupils, it is not surpassed by any colored school in the country.

Shaw University was founded in 1865 by Dr. H. M. Tupper, D. D., who conceived the desire for school work among the colored people while serving as a soldier in our late war. He started his first school, which has grown into the present university, in a cabin scarcely ten by twenty feet. The large brick structures, which now form a part of the institution, are looked upon with great interest because of the fact that the bricks in them were made by student labor under the direction of Dr. Tupper.

There are normal, collegiate, scientific, music and industrial departments, as well as schools of pharmacy, law and medicine, and a missionary training school, and all doing good work. Every graduate of the pharmacy school, class of 1900, recently appeared be- fore the State Board of Examiners and obtained cer- tificates as required by law. Prof. Chas. F. Meserve is its present president, since the death of Dr. Tupper.

The Baptists have cause to be proud of the good work done at Shaw University. Preachers and teachers by the hundreds have been educated at this excellent institution for home and foreign mission vork.

Among Colored People. 31

BISHOP COLLEGE.

Bishop College is located in the city of Marshall, the county-seat of Harrison county, Texas. For beauty of situation, commodiousness of buildings* and completeness of outfit for the work, this institu- tion is unsurpassed by any school for the colored people west of the Mississippi.

The Rev. N. Wolverton has been succeeded as president by the Rev. Albert Loughridge, who will push the work with the same degree of vigor. The dormitories are spacious and pleasant, the grounds are ample for recreation, and those who go there to live find all the advantages of a Christian home.

Every student must understand that, in entering the school, he stands pledged to willing and cheer- ful conformity to the regulations prescribed by the faculty for its government.

This institution was founded in 1881. It now em- ploys nine white teachers and seven colored. Total number of students in attendance daily about two hundred. Amount of money expended yearly for the support of the school, $^,4^4.

BENEDICT COLLEGE.

In 1870 a desirable site for an institution for the education of colored people was found available at Columbia, S. C. As this was the capital of the State, and central, it was decided to locate it here. A noble woman in New England, Mrs. B. A. Benedict, of Providence, R. I., gave ;^ 10,000 towards its pur- chase, the cost being ;^ 16,000. The property con*

32 Evidences of Progress

sisted of nearly eighty acres of land. In honor of the deceased husband of the donor, Dea. Stephen Benedict, brother of David Benedict, the historian, the Board called the school " Benedict Institute."

It was opened December i, 1870, under the charge of Rev. Timothy S. Dodge, as principal. The first pupil was a colored preacher, sixty years old. In October, 1887, Rev. Lewis Colby succeeded Mr. Dodge under appointment of the Board.

Upon his resignation in 1879, Rev. E. J. Good- speed, D. D., was appointed. He entered upon his work in October, continuing until his death, in the summer of 1881. Rev. C. E. Becker was selected as his successor and went to Columbia in October, 1882, but at this writing the president is Rev. A. C. Osborn. D. D.

During 1879-80, Rev. Lewis Colby, deeply im- pressed with the need of better accommodations, especially for girls, devoted his time without com- pensation, and with the approval of the Board, to raising ;^5,ooo for a girls' building. This amount being secured, together with an additional offering from Mrs. Benedict, two frame buildings were erected in 1881. Towards the furnishing of the buildings, the colored people of the State gave over ;^i,6oo. The girls' building is known as "Colby Hall." Better quarters for the young men are greatly needed. By special act of the South Caro- lina Legislature, through the efforts of President Becker and the co-operation of leading Baptists, the institution in 1882 was exempted from taxation.

Among Colored People. 33

LELAND UNIVERSITY.

Leland University was founded in 1870 for the nigher education of such men and women as desired to fit themselves for Christian citizenship, either as ministers, teachers, or tradesmen. It is open to all persons who are fitted to enjoy its advantages, with- out distinction of race, color, or religious opinions. The University owes its existence to the late Hol- brook Chamberlain, Esq., of Brooklyn, N. Y., who erected the buildings, assisted in its management, and at his death left to it the bulk of his property, about ;^ 100,000, as an endowment fund, the interest of which goes to the